How I Beat 4 Cancers

xIn the summer of 2009, when I returned home after a haircut, I examined myself in the mirror and noticed a small, raised, dark brown lesion with indistinct borders on the final third of my right eyebrow. Having seen, diagnosed, biopsied, confirmed and surgically removed hundreds of cancerous lesions in my professional career, I knew that I was in big trouble.

My Dermatologist did a punch biopsy of the lesion which came back from the lab positive, as a Malignant Melanoma. At the same time, he biopsied several lesions on my back, and the results came back from the lab as positive for multiple Basal Cell carcinomas. He wanted to surgically remove these deadly lesions, irradiate the sites, and also prescribed several courses of chemotherapy. I said yes to the surgeries but no to the radiation and chemotherapy.

I then thought it prudent to get an overdue and complete physical exam from my General Physician. Along with a spike in my white blood cell count, which was understandable due to my bodies reaction to these insidious cancers, my PSA level had increased from 2.4 to 5.9 which indicated a problem with my prostate gland, as any reading above 4.0 is considered to be abnormal.

My Urologist thought that the increase in my PSA level and WBC’s might be due to an infection in my prostate gland, and prescribed a 5 day course of antibiotics, followed a week later by another PSA test. The second PSA test, instead of showing a decreased level of prostaglandin, showed an increased level from 5.9 to 6.6.

I scheduled a prostate biopsy which revealed that I had cancer in 25-30% of the gland. My Urologist wanted to remove my prostate gland, irradiate the area and prescribed several rounds of chemotherapy. He also recommended a full body nuclear scan to check for the possible spread of cancer to my bones and other organs.

In the interim, I had 3 surgeries to remove the Malignant Melanoma from my eyebrow and the Basal Cell carcinomas from my back.

I had a full body scan (NMR) which revealed a lesion, the size of a walnut, in my left femur, suspected to be a sarcoma.

My Oncologist confirmed the diagnosis and wanted to remove two inches of my femur, do a free rib graft to replace the lost bone, strap the bone graft with titanium plates, then irradiate the area multiple times, followed by several courses of chemotherapy.

I felt that I had won the cancer lottery. Four different types of deadly cancers at once. What was I to do?

It was late November, 2009, and I am being urged by 4 different doctors to undergo the traditional western medical treatments of “cut, burn and poison” therapy. So I took a poll of all of my physicians by asking them all the same question: “If you were in my situation, what would you do”?

My GP stated that he would have the surgeries, but not the radiation or chemotherapy. My Dermatologist said that he would not have the radiation or chemotherapy. My Urologist stated that he would have his prostate gland removed, but not undergo the radiation or the chemotherapy. My Oncologist stated that he would have the surgery to remove the sarcoma. but not have the radiation or chemotherapy. What was going on here? Four medical professionals who routinely prescribed chemo and radiation therapy, but would not follow the same protocols if they had the same cancers that I had. What hypocrites!

I still had many contacts in the medical field and reached out for multiple consultations concerning my predicament, and started researching alternative, non-traditional treatments for cancer. I found a study that had polled 1200 Oncologists on whether they would follow the standard protocol of radiation and chemotherapy if they were diagnosed with certain types of cancer. Depending on the type of cancer, between 85-91% of the Oncologist said NO, that they, themselves would not use chemotherapy or radiation to treat their own cancers. WHY? Radiation causes cancer, and all of the chemotherapy drugs are carcinogenic, they cause cancer! Just read the warnings on labels of the chemo drugs: WARNING: POISON; KNOWN TO CAUSE CANCER IN HUMAN BEINGS. The cure is worse than the disease!

Then. in church, I had an epiphany. I knew that if I was to survive these cancers that I would have to cure myself using non-traditional, alternative therapies.

I learned basic facts about cancer cells. These are cells that simply refuse to die and keep proliferating, unchecked by the body, to form masses and lesions that negatively effect vital tissues and organs. Normal cells die within 3-4 days and are eliminated by the body through the lymphatic system, the skin, the intestines, the liver and the kidneys. Cancer is a disease caused by the immune systems’ inability to shut off and kill these aberrant cells and eliminate them from the body.

I learned that cancer cells feed on glucose which is formed from the ingestion of refined sugars and carbohydrates, and drinking sodas and sweetened fruit juices. Without a supply of glucose, cancer cells have no food source and will eventually die, allowing the immune system to treat them like normal dead cells and eliminate them from the body.

Cancer cells thrive in an acidic environment caused by stress, acidic foods and drinks, dehydration, and environmental polutants and toxins. Remove the acids from the body and you will present a negative environment for the formation, growth and proliferation of cancer cells.

Cancer cells love a low level of oxygen in the body. The less oxygen present, the faster that they can proliferate. Oxygenate the body and you will present a negative environment for the growth of cancer cells.

Cancer cells are heat sensitive. Find a way to increase the internal core temperature of the body and you will kill cancer cells.

I spoke to dozens of people in the USA, Canada, the European Union, India and Australia including physicians, oncologists, holistic healers, shamans and especially to cancer survivors; if they had information on curing cancer, I wanted it.

The most helpful scientific information that I compiled was from a plethora of professionals who have dedicated their lives to curing cancer and disseminating useful information on non-traditional treatment protocols. Most have published books and papers on the subject and have informative websites. They were all extremely experienced, helpful, understanding and were willing to share their knowledge with me.

Even more helpful was the information that I received from cancer survivors, people like myself who either by trial and error, or by scientific research had strived and succeeded in curing themselves of various types of cancer. They were all were willing to share their experiences and treatment protocols, provided valued information, positive feedback, and gave me the courage and hope that I too could cure my own cancers by utilizing non-traditional methods.

I had completed my research and had a basic plan:

  • Detoxification of the body by eliminating all known toxins, poisons and contaminants.
  • Adjustment of the bodies pH from acidic to alkaline.
  • Oxygenation of the body.
  • Fortification of the immune system by changes in diet, exercise and the addition of vitamins, minerals and natural supplements to the body.
  • Radical changes in ones emotional state and a spiritual state.

Our bodies get bombarded with pollutants, toxins and contaminants every day, both from the environment and those that we ingest: harmful foods and contaminated water; the use of cell phones and other electronic devices; environmental radiation; electronic radiation; electronic noise; traffic noise; airplane noise; heavy metals; etcetra and ad nauseum.

We drink and bathe in tap water that is an unoxygenated chemical soup, full of toxins, contaminants, heavy metals and chemicals like fluoride, chlorine, bromine, mercury and lye.

Some of us are being poisoned by amalgam fillings in our teeth that constantly leech mercury into our bodies where it accumulates in our fat cells and brains. Some of us have been exposed to lead from paint or old water pipes. Insecticides, fungicides, estrogen and synthetic hormones are rampant in our food supply. Most pellagic fish such as swordfish, tuna and sharks are full of heavy metals. You would be surprised at how many people are infected by yeasts, fungi, bacterias and parasites, and are not aware of these infections.

We must do everything in our power to remove pollutants, toxins and contaminants from our environment.

  • Install a home water filtration system. Stop drinking the dead, chemical soup that comes from your taps.
  • When you use your cell phone, put it on speaker mode and hold it away from your head when you are communicating.
  • Have amalgam filling removed from your teeth.
  • Wear earplugs if you are constantly inundated with noise pollution and try to avoid being present in excessively noisy environments.
  • Stop eating contaminated fish.
  • Eat only organically grown meats, poultry and vegetables.
  • Do not consume foods that contain GMO’s (genetically modified organisms).
  • Have yourself checked for systemic infections and parasites and cure the infections if need be.

If you live near a power plant, airport, expressway or any other constant source of excessive noise, move!

Once you have removed as many sources of pollution, toxins and contamination from your environment it is time to remove them from your body by completing a full body cleanse and detoxification. When you detoxify your body, start from the bottom and work up. Cleanse the bowels; the urinary tract; detoxify the liver; detoxify the gall bladder; detoxify the circulatory system

The bowel cleansing can be done at home using an enema bag. Take daily warm water enemas for 5 days followed with warm coffee enemas for 5 days. using the cleanest, flavor free coffee that is available.

Cleanse the urinary tract by drinking 12-16 ounces of 100% organic, unsweetened cranberry juice for 7 days. If you suffer from yeast or bacterial infection, anti-fungal or antibiotic therapy should be first administered.

For the liver, gall bladder and blood detoxification, the help of a professional is in order. An expert in holistic medicine or an expert in Chinese medicine and acupuncture is advised to help guide you through the therapy.

Once that you have removed the pollutants, contaminants and toxins from your environment and body, it is now time alkalize your body. Cancer cells thrive in an acidic environment. If the pH of your body is lower than 7.0 (neutral), your body is acidic and provides an environment that allows cancer cells to form, thrive and proliferate. The main causes of body acidity are:

  • Stress, anger, frustration and fear.
  • Most tap water and 99% of bottled waters are acidic.
  • All carbonated sodas.
  • All sports drinks and energy enhancing drink.
  • Beer and hard liquor.
  • Many foods are acidic. You can Google “acidic foods for a complete list.
  • Coffee.
  • Aspirin.
  • The consumption of most pharmaceutical drugs.

Our bodies are composed of about 75% water and our brains are composed of about 85% water. By increasing the pH of the water that we consume, we can rapidly alkalize our bodies. The easiest and most direct way to alkalize the body is to drink significant amounts of highly ionized, highly oxygenated, high pH alkaline water.

pH is a measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a solution that is expressed by a scale of 0 to 14; 0 being totally acidic; 7 being neutral and 14 being totally alkaline. The “p” represents “the power of”, and the “H” represents “the hydrogen ion concentration”. Each unit of change represents a tenfold change in acidity or alkalinity.

The optimum pH of the blood is said to be between 7.35 and 7.45. I, and other cancer survivors believe that if one can raise the pH level of the blood to 8.5, over a hundredfold increase of alkalinity, one will present a severely altered negative environment for the formation, growth and proliferation of cancer cells in that body.

How does one accomplish this seemingly difficult task? Simple: purchase a water ionization machine and drink only highly ionized, highly oxygenated, high pH alkaline water. There are many water ionization machines on the market today and all of them are significantly expensive, costing between $1,000 and $5,000 per unit. When you factor in the facts that the average family spends between $1,500 and $2,000 per year to on dead, acidic bottled water; that the cost of these machines is tax deductible as a medical expense and the alternative costs of traditional cancer treatments are astronomical, this initial cost is negligible.

After extensive research I determined that the ionization machines produced by “Enagic”, a Japanese company that has been producing water ionization machines for 40 years, are the best machines on the market. I purchased an “Enagic” Leveluk SD501 machine for about $3,600. The reasons that I chose this machine are: it contains 7 solid titanium electrolysis plates, plated in platinum; it comes with a 5 year warranty; it pre-filters the water to remove any contaminants and heavy metals that your home water filter may have missed; it produces 5 different types of water that have 9 different pH values; it “speaks” to you and has an automatic cleaning system.

I started by drinking 3 quarts of the 8.5 pH water daily and after 2 weeks switched to 9.0 pH water. After a month I was drinking a gallon of 9.5 pH water a day. You may think that drinking a gallon of water a day is excessive, but I wanted to alkalize my body as soon as possible and flush out as many toxins and contaminates from my body as quickly as possible. The water produced by this ionizer is micro-clustered and has a negative ionic charge, allowing it to work on the cellular level and attach itself ionically to positively charged free radicals and eliminate them from the body trough the kidneys, liver, skin and sweat glands.

Not only was I providing a negative environment for the formation, growth and proliferation of cancer cells in my body, but as an added bonus was protecting my body from harmful bacterias and viruses. Pathogenic (disease causing) anerobic bacteria and small viruses, that cause the majority of harmful infections, can not survive in an alkaline environment. Three healthy, positive effects for the price of one.

The second phase is oxygenation of the body. Oxygen equals life, and makes up about 65% of the bodies mass. It oxidizes and burns food to create energy and heat for our bodies. It also oxidizes and burns free radicals, that would otherwise would poison our cells, so that they can be eliminated from our bodies. A low oxygen level at the cellular level is the major underlying cause of all disease in the human body.

Oxygen deficiency causes an increase in stomach and general body acidity; invasive systemic bacterial, viral and parasitic infections; bronchial and circulatory problems; depression, fatigue and irritability; irrational behavior; memory loss; lowered immunity; body weakness; poor digestion and the formation of tumors. Low oxygen levels provide cancer cells a favorable environment that allows them to form, grow and proliferate

It is the red blood cells (RBC’s) that are responsible for delivering oxygen from the lungs to the bodies tissues and organs, and returning carbon dioxide back to the lungs for disposal by expiration. RBC’s are formed from stem cells in the red bone marrow which are transformed into cells called hemolytoblasts in a process that takes about two days to complete. The healthy body produces about 2,000,000 RBC’s every second.

The hematocrit is a measure of the percentage of RBC’s in our blood. In an adult male, the hematocrit level should measure between 40 and 50%, and in an adult female between 38 and 44%.

It is the hemoglobin (a protein molecule in the RBC’s) that carries the oxygen from the lungs and returns carbon dioxide to the lungs for disposal. In the average adult male, the hemoglobin level should be between 14 and 18 grams per deciliter, and in the average adult female, between 12 and 16.

With a decrease in either of these levels, hemoglobin or the hematocrit, the bodies tissues do not receive enough oxygen and are subject to the symptoms of oxygen deficiency as listed above. These low levels also damage the respiratory enzymes in newly formed cells so that these cells can not produce energy and therefore are not able to to utilize oxygen. These depleted cells are likely to turn cancerous.

By feeding the body and the brain with high levels of oxygen you can prolong life, increase cognitive functions, combat Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and most importantly provide a negative environment for the formation, growth and proliferation of cancer cells.

If you are hydrating your body properly by drinking plenty of alkaline water from a proper ionization machine, you are insuring that your body is hydrated, properly oxygenated, and that your hemoglobin and hematocrit levels are within normal ranges.. The SD 501 machine that I purchased, during the ionization process, infuses the water with massive amounts of oxygen: between 700-750 times the amount of oxygen provided by tap or bottled water.

You can also increase the amount of available oxygen by purchasing a home air ionization machine (ozinator). Some cancer survivors swore that by drinking diluted hydrogen peroxide every day they were forcing more oxygen into their bodies. Others spent time in hyperbaric oxygen chambers several times per week. Still others had pure oxygen injected directly into their blood stream.

The third phase is fortifying the immune system.

The immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within your body that protects it against disease. The immune system must detect, neutralize and remove a wide variety of harmful substances known as pathogens, and be able to distinguish these pathogens from your own normal, healthy tissues. It is effected by a variety of factors such as: diet; sleep; exercise; stress; emotional states and genetics.

All immune cells come from precursor cells produced in the bone marrow. They differentiate and develop into mature cells through a series of changes that occur in different parts of the body:

    • The skin is the first line of defense against pathogens. Skin cells produce and secrete important antimicrobial proteins. Different immune cells are found in different layers of the skin.


    • The bone marrow contains stem cells that differentiate into a variety of innate cell types, including: neutrophils; eosinophils; basophils; mast cells; monocytes; dendritic cells and macrophages. These cells are the bodies first line responders against infection. Other adaptive immune cells, B and T cells, are responsible for mounting responses to specific microbes based on previous encounter (immunologic memory). Natural killer cells (NK cells) provide an immediate defense like innate cells but also may also act as adaptive cells. B, T and NK cells are also known as lymphocytes.


    • Immune cells constantly circulate through the bloodstream, patrolling for pathogens.


    • T cells mature in the thymus gland which produces all of your T cells by the time that you reach puberty.


    • The Lymphatic System is a network of vessels and tissues composed of lymph, an extracellular fluid, and lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes. It is a conduit for travel and communication between tissues and the bloodstream. Immune cells are carried through the lymphatic system and converge in the lymph nodes, found throughout the body. Lymph nodes are communication hubs where immune cells can sample information brought in from other parts of the body. If adaptive immune cells recognize pathogens from a distant area, they will activate, replicate, and leave the lymph node to circulate and address the pathogen where ever it may be in the body. This action may cause the lymph node to swell which indicates an active immune response.


    • The spleen is an organ located behind the stomach. While it is not directly connected to the lymphatic system, it is important for processing information from the bloodstream. Immune cells are enriched in specific areas of the spleen and upon recognizing blood- borne pathogens, they will activate and respond accordingly.


  • Mucosal Tissues and surfaces are primary entry points for pathogens. Specialised immune hubs are strategically located in mucosal tissues like the respiratory system and the gut. The small intestine, which is said to be responsible for 75% of the activity and efficiency of the immune system, contains both B and T lymphocytes which attack the pathogens through the bloodstream.

The key to fortifying your immune system is your diet; “we are what we eat”. As Hippocrates stated: “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food”.

In radically changing my diet I had to identify acidic foods and either eliminate them completely or severely restrict them from my diet. Then I had to identify alkaline foods and consume them almost exclusively. My goal was to eat 80% alkaline foods and only 20% acidic foods. You can find complete lists of both alkyline and acidic foods on the internet. Purchasing only organic meats, fruits, vegetables and non-farmed fish was more expensive, but well worth it as there were far fewer pesticides, chemicals, colorants, hormones and polutants for my body to have to detoxify and eliminate. I learned to cook mainly without oils, but when using oils, used only extra virgin coconut oil for high heat cooking and extra virgin olive oil for low heat or raw applications. I also purchased a “Magic Bullet” food macerator for juicing and used it often to feed my body with raw, natural nutrients. I tried to eat at the same times every day and rarely ate out at restaurants. I used only “Himalayan Pink Salt”, very sparingly, as it is full of vital minerals. As I adapted to my new diet, extra pounds began to melt away and I felt great; full of energy and liking my new figure.

An important factor in fortifying your immune system is daily vitamin and mineral supplement therapy. The regimen that I followed was gleaned from my research and the shared experiences of cancer survivors.


  • Vitamin A – 900 mcg/day
  • Vitamin B complex – 125 mg/day
  • Vitamin B12 – 500 mcg/day
  • Vitamin B 17 – from bitter apricot seeds – up to 30 seeds/day
  • Vitamin C vith Bioflavenoids – 2,000 mg/day
  • Vitamin D – 200 iu/day
  • Vitamin D3 – 2,000 iu/day
  • Vitamin E – 400 iu/day
  • Omega 3 from fish oil – 2.000 mg/day


  • Multimineral Supplement – 1 tablet/day
  • Selenium – 200 mcg/day
  • Chromium – 300 mcg/day
  • Zinc – 10 mg/day
  • Boron – 15 mg/day
  • Potassium iodide 4% plus Iodine 2% solution – 4-6 drops/day

This seems like a tremendous number of pills to take daily, but I was fighting to save my life and was willing to do anything possible to achieve that goal.

Some general dietary guidelines: never eat any processed or canned foods; severely limit your consumption of dairy products; shop at “natures pharmacy” and consume the freshest, most organic, mostly alkaline diet as possible; eat the most raw and colorful plant based diet as possible; flavor your foods with spices like cayenne, tumeric, cumin, pink himalayan salt, black pepper and all of the fresh herbs that you desire.

Regular exercise: swimming, daily long walks, running, weight lifting, yoga and any other exercise that you desire is most helpful. Remember that by sweating you are eliminating toxins and contaminates from the body.

Curing cancer is all about achieving a balance, not only in your diet but in your emotional and spiritual life in general. In any endeavor ones attitude is paramount to success or failure. A positive attitude has half the battle won. When I decided to cure my 4 cancers by myself, I knew innately that I would succeed. I had no doubts.

The first step that I took in fortifying my emotional state was to simplify and eliminate as much stress from my life as possible. I learned to delegate stressful and mundane tasks to other qualified people. I hired an investment advisor to take over the management of all my investment accounts and pay all of my bills.

At the time I was in the process of rehabilitating the kitchen and two bathrooms in my home. I was doing all of the work by myself and this was obviously very stressful. I immediately called an old friend who was a master contractor, and hired him to complete the jobs.

Next, I severed all ties with those whom I considered to be negative people, both “friends” and acquaintances, who were either takers, pessimists, naysayers or dolts. There were a dozen people involved in this separation and it was a very painful and emotional experience. After I was done cutting these ties, I felt like I had removed a gangrenous limb from my body. I then surrounded myself only with positive and optimistic people.

Laughter is the best medicine! I tried to laugh several times a day by telling and listening to jokes, and by watching comedic movies and videos on the internet whenever possible. I tried to be happy and positive at all times.

At least 30 minutes of “trancendental meditation” a day left me in a very peaceful, composed, relaxed and in a positive state of mind.

I found a massage therapist and indulged myself by having full and deep body massages every week.

I found a wonderful chiropractor, and after regular treatments was totally pain free, walking erect and feeling great.

Remembering that cancer cells are heat sensitive, one of the best ways to both kill them and to fortify your emotional state is by infrared sauna therapy which heats the body from the inside out and raises the internal body core temperature sufficiently enough to be very effective in killing cancer cells.

I can not stress enough the need to fortify your spiritual state and “get right” with your higher power! Whomever you worship, whether it is Jesus, Moses, Mohamed, Buddha, the Dali Llama,Vishnu, Shiva or Krishna, fortify your connection! If you are an aetheist or an agnostic you are S.O.L. in this respect.

After my diagnosis I was compelled to attend worship services, and found myself in a church where I had never been before. I was an emotional wreck at the time, wrought with doubt, fear, uncertainty and completely stressed out. Before the service I introduced myself and explained to the Pastor my recent diagnosis and requested a special prayer and blessing from him and the congregation. He was very obliging and had the congregation, of several hundred people, pray for all cancer sufferers. After the service the Reverand approached me directly and asked me if I would like to meet with him privately and further discuss my situation. I was thrilled and began meeting with him several times a week for coffee, prayer, solice and support. When I told him of the epiphany that I had during one of his sermons, and my decision to treat myself, he was openly shocked but remained very supportive. He said that God loved me and that if I asked Him He would help me to complete my quest. I eventually joined the church and I truly believe that I was in the right place at the right time and received a “divine intervention” directly from God. Never underestimate the power of prayer and belief.

By January, 2010, I had fully implemented my plan to eradicate my cancers. By mid-June of 2010, after following my program for 6 months, I went back to see my doctors to take a new set of tests to determine if my plan was working.

My Urologist preformed another prostate biopsy and informed me that my prostate cancer, which previously had consumed 25-30% of my gland, had now decreased to effecting only 10% of my prostate gland.

After having another full body scan, my Oncologist reported that my osteogenic sarcoma had shrunk from being the size of a walnut to being the size of a pea, and that there had been no metastasis (spreading) of my cancers to any other organs. He was duly amazed and asked me how I accomplished this feat. I explained my treatment protocol to him, and he said: “God bless you”, to which I replied: “He already has”.

My Dermatologist also found no signs of any recurring lesions on my body and pronounced me cancer free at the epithelial level.

With this positive reinforcement, I happily continued with my plan for another 6 months then repeated this process and went in for another round of tests.

After another prostate biopsy my Urologist was happy to report that the lab had not been able to find any sign of cancer present in my prostate gland. As he stated: “I know it is there but we just can’t find it”. My dermatologist then gave me a clean bill of health. After another full body scan, my Oncologist was very happy to report that my osteogenic sarcoma had now mysteriously disappeared and become only a shadow on the scan. and also stated that there was still no metastasis to any other organ in my body.

Every year I repeat this process and have been entirely cancer free since the beginning of 2010. My name can now be added to the growing list of people who have “just said no” to the barbaric practices of radical surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and by using an alternative, non-traumatic, non-invasive treatment protocols, cured and hopefully prevented this insidious disease from re-occurrence. To this day I continue following my protocol: detoxification; alkylinization; oxygenation; fortification of my immune system; and continually renewing both my emotional and spiritual states.

You are what you eat, drink, think and believe! Will this treatment protocol work for you and cure your cancer? Try it, become a believer and add your name to the growing list of self healed cancer survivors.

Do I Have Cancer


There are over 100 different types of cancer. Each type of cancer can have different symptoms, diagnostic tests and treatment options. As a result, there are many terminologies and phrases that are used to describe the type, symptoms and diagnosis of cancer, and treatment methods. It is often very confusing as well as frustrating for the readers if too many medical jargons or terminologies are used in describing this condition. It is difficult for readers to understand the context of the topic or take any action, if required, after reading any article or book on cancers. As a result, the information is often misinterpreted or not fully understood or comprehended.

In this 3rd article of my cancer series, I would like to explain in very simple terms all phrases and terminologies used in describing a cancer. This will help readers in understanding the cancer terms, types of cancer, common diagnosis and treatment terminologies, and the health personnel involved in management of cancer. These are described in alphabetical order here.

Ablation: removal or destruction of body part or tissue. Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) therapy involves destroying cancer tissue with heat. RFA is commonly used in the treatment of lung, liver and kidney tumors.

Adenocarcinoma: cancer that begins from lining of internal organs or from skin

Adenoma: a non-cancer tumor that starts from glands

Adenopathy: swollen glands

Adjunct or adjunctive therapy: another treatment used together with primary treatment. For example, radiotherapy is sometimes given after surgery to treat cancer as adjunctive treatment.

Anal: of anus, anal cancer

Anorexia: an abnormal loss of appetite for food.

Asbestos: a group of minerals that are found in the form of tiny fibres. It is used as insulation against heat and fire in buildings. Asbestos dust when breathed into the lungs can lead to cancer of lungs and mesothelioma.

Asthenia: feeling or weakness or lack of energy. This is common in late stage cancer.

Astrocyte: this is a type of cell in the brain or spinal cord. Astrocytoma is a tumor that begins in astrocytes.

Asymptomatic: having no signs or symptoms of disease. Most cancers are asymptomatic in the early stages.

Axillary lymph node dissection: removal of lymph nodes in the axilla. This may be done in the treatment of breast cancer.

B-cell lymphoma: A type of cancer that forms in B cells.

Barrett esophagus: this is a condition where the cells lining the lower part of the esophagus have changed or been replaced by abnormal cells that could lead to cancer of the esophagus. The regurgitation of the contents of stomach into the esophagus over time can lead to Barrett esophagus.

Basal cells: they are small round cells found in the lower part of epidermis. The cancer that begins in the basal cells is called basal cell cancer or basal cell carcinoma.

Benign: not cancerous, also called non-malignant. Malignant tumor is a cancerous growth.For example, fibroadenoma is a benign tumor of breast whereas as adenocarcinoma is a malignant tumor of the breast.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia: this is a non-cancerous condition of prostate where there is overgrowth of prostate tissue.

Biological therapy: this is a type of treatment that uses substances made from living organisms or its products to boost or restore the ability of the immune system to fight cancer. Examples of biological agents include vaccines, interleukins and monoclonal antibodies.

Biopsy: the removal of cells or tissues from the cancer or suspected cancer area for examination by a pathologist. This is the most sure way of diagnosing cancer.

Bone marrow ablation: This is a procedure that is used to destroy bone marrow using radiation or high doses of anticancer drugs. It is done before a bone marrow or blood stem cell transplant to kill cancer cells and bone marrow cells. This is a part of intensive treatment of some leukemias.

Bone marrow aspiration: this is a procedure in which a small sample of bone marrow is removed with a wide needle and syringe and sent to laboratory to check for cancer cells. If a small sample of bone with bone marrow inside it is removed, it is called bone marrow biopsy.

Bone marrow transplantation: A procedure that is used to replace bone marrow that has been destroyed by treatment with high doses of anticancer drugs or radiation.

Bone metastasis: cancer that has spread to bone from the original (primary) site.

Brachytherapy: it is also called internal radiotherapy. In this type of radiation therapy, radioactive materials sealed in needles, seeds, catheters or wires are placed directly into or near a tumor.

BRCA1 and BRCA2: these are genes on chromosomes 17 and 13 respectively. A person who is born with changes (mutations) in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes has higher risk of getting breast, ovaries and prostate cancer.

Breast reconstruction: a surgery that is done to rebuild the shape of the breast after removing breast.

Breast self-examination: a woman examines her breasts to check for lumps or other changes.

Bronchogenic carcinoma: cancer that begins in the tissue that lines or covers the airways of the lungs.

Cancer antigen 125 or CA-125: a substance that may be found in high amounts in the blood of patients with certain types of cancer, including ovarian cancer.

Cachexia: loss of muscle mass and body weight. Cachexia is seen in patients in late stage cancer.

Cancer: this is a condition where there is uncontrolled division of abnormal cells.

Carcinogen: any substance that causes cancer, for example, tobacco smoke contains more than 50 carcinogens. Benzene is a carcinogen for leukemias.

Carcinogenesis: it is a process whereby normal cells start changing into cancer cells.

Carcinoma: it is a cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line the internal organs of the body. For example squamous cell carcinoma of skin or adenocarcinoma of gallbladder.

Carcinoma in situ: these are abnormal cells (not cancer) but can become cancer cells and spread. They are also said to be in stage 0 of cancer for example, cervical carcinoma in situ.

Carcinoma of unknown primary (cup): in this type of cancer, cancer cells are found in some parts of the body, but the place where the cancer cells first started to grow cannot be determined.

Cervical: of cervix, cervical cancer

Colostomy: colostomy is an operation that connects the colon to the outside of the body through the abdominal wall.

Cryosurgery: this is a procedure in which tissue is frozen to destroy abnormal cells. Liquid nitrogen or liquid carbon dioxide is used to freeze the tissues. It is also called cryotherapy or cryosurgical ablation.

Cyst: a sac in the body; cysts in the ovary are very common.

Cytotoxic drugs: drugs that kill cells.

Dilatation and curettage (D&C): this is a procedure where some tissues are removed from the lining of uterus or cervix. The cervix is first made larger (dilated) with a instrument called dilator and another instrument called cutrette is inserted into the uterus to remove the tissue. The removed tissue sample may be sent to laboratory to check for abnormal or cancer cells.

Debulking: this is the surgical removal of as much of a tumor as possible. This type of operation is usually done to relieve symptoms of cancer in the late stages of the disease.

Dermal: of skin

Duodenal: of duodenum, duodenal cancer

Dysplastic nevi: it is also called atypical moles and have a tendency to develop into melanoma.

Endometrial: of endometrium, endometrial cancer

Esophageal: of esophagus, esophageal cancer

Euthanasia: the intentional killing of a person to end his/her sufferings. It is also called mercy killing.

Excision: removal by surgery, for example, excision of melanoma from skin.

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): this is an inherited condition in which many polyps form on the inside walls of the colon and rectum. FAP increases the risk of colorectal cancers.

Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome (FAMMM): this is an inherited condition that increases the risk of melanoma and pancreatic cancer.

Familial cancer: cancers that occur in families more often than in general population, for example, breast or colorectal cancer.

Fecal occult blood test (FOBT): this is a test to check for blood in the stool. This is a screening test for bowel cancer.

Fibroadenoma: this is a benign tumor of breast.

Fibroid: a benign tumor that arises from smooth muscle, for example, uterine fibroid.

First-degree relatives: this includes the parents, brothers, sisters, or children of an individual.

Fistula: an abnormal opening or passage between two organs or between an organ and the surface of the body.

Follow-up: monitoring a person’s health condition over time after treatment.

Gardasil: this is a vaccine to prevent infections by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18, 6 and 11. It is used to prevent cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancers caused by these viruses.

Gastrectomy: an operation to remove all or part of the stomach.

Gastric: of stomach, gastric cancer

Gastric feeding tube: a tube that is inserted through the nose, down the throat and esophagus, and into the stomach to give liquid foods, liquids and drugs. Feeding tubes are often inserted in patients who have mouth, throat, neck and esophageal cancers, particularly when the surgery is extensive or combined with radiotherapy or chemotherapy.

Gastrotomy or PEG tube: this type of tube is inserted directly into the stomach through an opening in the skin and abdominal wall. This type of tube can be used for long-term feeding.

Gene: genes are pieces of DNA and contain the information for making a specific protein that is passed from parent to offspring. Genetic means related to genes.

Genetic counselor: a health professional trained in counseling on the genetic risk of diseases. This may involve discussing the person’s personal and family medical history and may lead to genetic testing.

Genetic testing: this is analyzing DNA to look for genetic change (mutation) that may indicate increased risk for cancer.

Genital warts: these are raised growths in the genital areas caused by human papilloma virus HPV) infection.

Germ cells: these are reproductive cells of the body and include egg cells in women and sperm cells in men. Tumors that arise from germ cells are called germ cell tumors.

Gleason score: this is a system of grading prostate cancer tissue based on how it looks under a microscope. Gleason scores range from 2 to 10 and indicate how likely it is that a tumor will spread. A low Gleason score means the cancer tissue is less likely to spread whereas a high Gleason score means the cancer tissue is more likely to spread.

Hematuria: blood in the urine.

Hemoptysis: coughing out blood from the respiratory tract.

Hemorrhoid: swollen blood vessel, usually seen in the anus or the rectum

Hepatic: of liver, hepatic cancer

Hepatoblastoma: it is a type of liver cancer more common in infants and children.

Hepatocellular carcinoma: this is the most common type of liver cancer.

Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC): this is an inherited disorder in which the affected individuals have a higher-than-normal chance of developing colorectal cancer.

High intensity focused ultrasound: (HIFU): this is a procedure in which high-energy sound waves are aimed directly at the cancer or abnormal cells. These waves create heat and kill the abnormal or cancer cells. Some types of prostate cancers are treated with HIFU.

Histology: the study of cells and tissues under a microscope.

History: the signs and symptoms the patient may have for a particular disease

Hysterectomy: an operation where uterus and/or cervix are removed. When both uterus and the cervix are removed, it is called a total hysterectomy. When only the uterus is removed, it is called a partial hysterectomy.

Immunotherapy: a treatment that boosts body’s immune system to fight cancer, for example, immunotherapy of bladder cancer with BCG vaccine.

Implant: a substance or object that is put in the body as prosthesis, for example, breast implant after removal of breast for cancer.

Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT): this is a type of radiation therapy that uses computer-generated images to show the size and shape of the tumor and direct thin beams of radiation at the tumor from different angles. This type of radiation therapy reduces the damage to healthy tissue near the tumor.

In situ: means ‘in its original place’. Carcinoma in situ means the abnormal cells are found only in the place they were first formed and have not spread nearby.

Incidence of cancer: the number of new cases of a cancer diagnosed each year.

Incision: a cut made in the body by a surgeon to perform surgery.

Induction therapy: this is the initial treatment given to reduce a cancer, for example, induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia.

Intrathecal chemotherapy: treatment in which anticancer drugs are injected into the fluid-filled space between the tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.

Intravenous (IV) chemotherapy: treatment in which anticancer drugs are injected into a vein through a canula.

Labial: of lip

Laryngeal: of larynx, laryngeal cancer

Laser surgery: a surgical procedure that uses intense, narrow beams of light to cut and destroy cancer tissue.

Leukemia: a cancer that starts in blood forming tissues such as bone marrow.

Lymphedema: a condition where extra lymph fluid builds up in tissues and causes swelling. This can be seen in the arm after breast operations.

Malignant: means cancerous. Malignancy is the term used to describe malignant cells that invade and destroy tissues.

Mass: a lump. It can be benign mass or malignant mass.

Mastectomy: removal of breast.

Medical oncologist: a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating cancer using chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy, and targeted therapy.

Mesothelioma: cancer arising from the mesothelial lining of the pleura (covering of lung)

Melanoma: the cancer that begins in melanocytes. Common site is the skin but can also occur in the eyes.

Metastasis: the spread of cancer from one part of the body to another. The cancer that is formed by cells that have spread from original site is called metastatic cancer or metastatic tumor.

Mucosal: of mucosa, mucosal lining of vagina

Mutate: means ‘to change’. Mutation means change in DNA of a cell.

Nasal: of nose, nasal polyp

Neoplasia: it is an abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth.

Neoplasm: it is an abnormal mass of tissue. Neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancer).
Nodule: it is a growth or lump or mass that can be benign or malignant.

Oncogene: this is a changed or mutated gene and may cause growth of cancer cells.

Oncology: the study of cancer

Oncologist: a doctor who specializes in treating cancer.

Oral: of mouth, oral cancer

Ovarian: of ovary, ovarian cancer

Palliative therapy or treatment: this is the treatment given to relieve the symptoms and reduce the suffering of cancer patient. Palliative care aims to improve the quality of life of patients.

Pancreatic: of pancreas, pancreatic cancer

Pharyngeal: of pharynx, pharyngeal cancer

PAP test: this is a procedure in which cells are scraped from the cervix and examined under a microscope. This test is done to detect cancer or to detect changes in the cervix that may lead to cancer.

Partial: not whole, partly, for example, partial gastrectomy which means part of stomach is removed.

Penectomy: surgery to remove part or the entire penis

Penile: of penis, penile cancer

Plastic surgery: a surgical procedure that improves the appearance of body structures. The person who does plastic surgery is called plastic surgeon. Plastic surgeons are involved in many reconstruction surgeries of breast, vagina or face after cancer treatment.

Polyps: these are small growths that arise from mucous membrane of colon and rectum.

Precancerous (premalignant) is a condition that may become cancer later.

Proctoscopy: examination of the rectum using a proctoscope, inserted into the rectum.

Prognosis: the likely outcome of cancer. The prognosis of most cancers in advanced stage is poor.

Prophylactic surgery: this is a surgery to remove part of a body or organ with no signs of cancer but in an attempt to prevent development of cancer in that organ in future. For example, prophylactic mastectomy or prophylactic removal of ovaries are sometimes done.

Prostatic: of prostate, prostatic cancer

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): this is a protein produced by prostate gland. The level of PSA in blood may be increased in men who have prostate cancer or enlarged prostate.

Pulmonary: of lung

Radiation oncologist: a doctor who specializes in using radiation to treat cancer.

Radiation physicist: a person who makes sure that the radiation machine delivers the right amount of radiation to the correct site in the body.

Radiation therapist: a health professional who gives radiation treatment.

Radiofrequency ablation: a procedure that uses radio waves to heat and destroy abnormal and cancer cells.

Recurrent cancer: cancer that has come back after treatment or after being undetectable for a period of time. The cancer is said to have recurred.

Refractory cancer or resistant cancer: cancer that does not respond to treatment.

Regimen: it is a treatment plan where the dosage, the schedule and the duration of treatment is specified.

Relative survival rate: it is an estimated number that compares the chances that a person with cancer will survive after the diagnosis or treatment of a cancer with those who do not have the cancer. It is usually calculated in terms of 2, 5 or 10 years. For example, the 5-year relative survival rate for colorectal cancer in America, if detected and treated early, is 90%.

Remission: this means disappearance of or decrease in signs and symptoms of cancer. A cancer is said to be in complete remission when there are no signs and symptoms of cancer; it is in partial remission if some signs and symptoms of cancer have disappeared.

Renal: of kidney, renal cancer

Resection: removal of part or all of an organ.

Risk factor: a risk factor is something that increases the chance of developing a cancer. For example, smoking is a risk factor for many cancers.

Screening: checking for diseases when there are no symptoms of cancer. Examples of cancer screening tests include PAP tests, mammogram, and colonoscopy.

Sentinel lymph node: it is the first lymph node to which cancer is likely to spread from the primary tumor.

Staging of cancer: this is doing examinations and tests to find out the extent of cancer in the body and also whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Staging cancer helps to give best treatment to the patient.

Stem cell: a cell from which other types of cells develop. For example, red blood cells develop from blood-forming stem cells.

Stent: it is a device that is placed in a body structure to keep it open. For example, a stent may be inserted in the bile duct if it is blocked by cancer of gallbladder.

Stoma: this is an opening made surgically from an area inside the body to the outside. For example, colostomy has a stoma in the abdominal wall.

Surgical menopause: a woman stops to have menstrual period following removal of her ovaries. This is seen in operations on cancers of ovaries or uterus.

Surgical oncologist: a doctor who performs surgical procedures in cancer patients.

Systemic chemotherapy: treatment of cancer with chemotherapy drugs that travel through bloodstream and reach cells all over the body.

Targeted therapy: a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells.

Testicular: of testis, testicular cancer

Thermotherapy: treatment of disease using heat.

Topical treatment: medicines that are applied on the surface of the body, for example, Aldara cream is applied topically on the skin to treat basal cell cancer.

Ulcer: this is a break on the skin or in the lining of an organ. For example, an ulcer on the face may be a sign of basal cell carcinoma.

Urethral: of urethra, urethral discharge

Uterine: of uterus, uterine cancer

Urologic oncologist: a doctor who specializes in treating cancers of the urinary system.

Vaginal of vagina, vaginal cancer

Visceral: of the viscera, viscera mean internal organs. Visceral pain is pain coming

Vulval or vulvar: of vulva, vulval pr vulvar cancer

Wart: a raised growth on the surface of the skin or other organs.

Watchful waiting: This involves closely watching a patient’s condition but not giving any active treatment. This is used in certain cancers like prostate or myeloma where the cancer progresses very slowly.

Wedge resection: this is a surgical procedure where a triangular piece of tissue is removed in order to treat a cancer.

If you would like to know more about cancer including signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and other cancer-related issues like family tumors, sexuality, cancer in pregnancy, children and HIV patients, palliative care, psychological problems, and prevention and screening of tumors, please visit ‘Do I Have Cancer? ‘. This 270 pages eBook provides a complete package of information on cancer that is guaranteed to give enough information on any issue related to malignant tumors. The next article in this series is ‘Symptoms of Cancer’